Max Ernst

(born April 2, 1891, Brühl, Ger. — died April 1, 1976, Paris, Fr.) German-born French painter and sculptor. He gave up studying philosophy and psychology at Bonn University for painting. After serving in World War I, he became the leader of the Dada movement in Cologne (1919), working in collage and photomontage. A characteristic work is Here Everything Is Still Floating (1920), a startlingly illogical composition made from cutout photographs of insects, fish, and anatomical drawings. In 1922 he settled in Paris and was among the founders of Surrealism. His work was imaginative and experimental; he pioneered the technique of frottage and experimented with automatism. After 1934 the irrational and whimsical imagery seen in his paintings appeared also in his sculpture. In 1941 he moved to New York City, where he joined his third wife, Peggy Guggenheim, and began collaborating with Marcel Duchamp. He returned to France in 1953 and continued to produce lyrical and abstract works

Jean (Hans) Arp

(1886 - 1966)

Jean (Hans) Arp was a pioneer of abstract art and a founding member of the Dada movement.
in 1911 he was a founder of and exhibited with the Moderne Bund group. One year later, he began creating collages using paper and fabric and influenced by Cubist and Futurist art. Arp then traveled to Paris and Munich where he became aquainted with Robert and Sonia Delaunay Vasily Kandinsky, Amadeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, and others.
in 1916, Arp became part of the founding group of the Zurich Dada artists. Their aim was to encourage spontaneous and chaotic creation, free from prejudice and the academic conventions that many believed were the root causes of war. For Arp, Dada represented the “reconciliation of man with nature and the integration of art into life.” At the end of the war, Arp continued his involvement with Dada promoting it in Cologne, Berlin, Hannover, and Paris.

represented the “reconciliation of man with nature and the integration of art into life.” At the end of the war, Arp continued his involvement with Dada promoting it in Cologne, Berlin, Hannover, and Paris.
Although Arp was committed to Dada, he also aligned himself somewhat with the Surrealists, exhibiting with the group in Paris exhibitions in the mid 1920′s. He shared their notion of unfettered creativity, spontaneity, and anti-rational position.
In the 1930′s, Arp began creating free-standing sculpture. Just as his reliefs were unframed, Arp’s sculptures were not mounted on a base, enabling them to simply take their place in nature. Instead of the term abstract art, he and other artists, referred to their work as Concrete Art, stating that their aim was not to reproduce, but simply to produce more directly. Arp’s goal was to concentrate on form to increase the sculpture’s domination of space and its impact on the viewer.
From the 1930′s onward, Arp also wrote and published poetry and essays. As well, he was a pioneer of  automatic writing and drawing that were important to the Surrealist movement.

Francis Picabia

(born Jan. 22, 1879, Paris, France — died Nov. 30, 1953, Paris) French painter, illustrator, designer, writer, and editor. After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts and the École des Arts Décoratifs, he painted for a time in an Impressionist and then a Cubist style. Picabia went on to combine the Cubist style with Orphic elements in such paintings as I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie (1913 – 14), to which he gave proto-Dadaist names. About 1916 he began to paint the satiric, machinelike contrivances that are his chief contribution to Dadaism. In 1915 in New York City, Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray together founded an American Dadaist movement. In 1917 Picabia returned to Europe and joined Dadaist movements in Barcelona, Paris, and Zürich. After Dadaism broke up about 1921, he followed the poet André Breton into the Surrealist movement. He subsequently painted in Surrealist, abstract, and figurative styles.

Marcel Duchamp

(born July 28, 1887, Blainville, France — died Oct. 2, 1968, Neuilly) French artist and art innovator. In 1913 he caused a sensation at the Armory Show with his painting Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912), which combined the principles of Cubism and Futurism. His irreverence for conventional aesthetic standards then led him to devise his famous ready-mades: in 1913 he exhibited Bicycle Wheel, which was simply an ordinary bicycle wheel displayed as a work of art, and in 1917 he exhibited a urinal he entitled Fountain. Intended as a derisive gesture against the excessive importance attached to works of art, the ready-mades ushered in an era when contemporary art became in itself a mixture of creation and criticism. In Paris in 1919 he established contact with the Dada group of artists, whose nihilistic ideas he had anticipated. During this period he exhibited a photograph of the Mona Lisa with a moustache and goatee added, a gesture that expressed the Dadaists' scorn for the art of the past. He greatly influenced the Surrealists, and his attitude toward art and society led to Pop art and other modern and postmodern movements. A legend in his lifetime, he is considered one of the leading spirits of 20th-century art.

Mark Bennion

Mark Bennion (b.1948 Seattle, Washington) is a painter and sculptor who has shown his work across the United States, Canada and Europe since 1968. Over the past 25 years he has developed a unique painting process, which he calls fresco, using oil, dry pigment on plaster, and paper on a panel or canvas.

Since 2006 he has exhibited with the international painters group "Pintura Fresca." They have held exhibitions in Singapore, London UK, San Francisco and West Chester University USA.
He lives and works on Vashon Island, near Seattle, Washington.

"I am interested in projects that take some time to unfold as opposed to an object that is static. These steel plates, while appearing static, are actually distressing the grass underneath. As time passes the grid will be shifted to reveal a shadow and thus begin the cycle of rejuvenation. Time / Revelator is a story about and revelation" - Mark Bennion

Maxine Yalovitz-Blankenship

The content of most of her work comes from growing up in the Deep South with its long hot summer days, poverty, racial, religious, and class distinctions and yes, too, the warmth and love of teachers, books, and red clay: "Beating rhythms and ‘shadow puppets’ on window shades at night from Holy Rollers who lived across the street was the Art I knew and linked to the art I do today. William Faulkner said the only thing worth writing about is the heart in conflict with itself. My father’s pawnshop, my mother’s garden, the black women who raised me and the prejudices of a closed society are the stuff of which my art is made."
After she received a Guggenheim Fellowship, the deCordova Museum in Lincoln, Massachusetts, was given a Richard Florsheim Art Fund Grant to acquire an eighteen-foot work composed of two hundred and seven paintings in grid formation. Prior to her Guggenheim Fellowship, Ms. Yalovitz-Blankenship was a Painting Fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study (formerly Bunting Institute) and received four awards in Painting and Drawing from the Massachusetts Cultural Council. She taught at the Atlanta College of Art and Georgia State University. In Boston she has been a guest instructor at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Massachusetts College of Art, and Simmons College. She has served in the Mentor Programs at the Art Institute of Boston and Radcliffe. 

Ms. Yalovitz-Blankenship has shown her work in over one hundred exhibitions including twenty-six solo shows. Curatorial work includes the September 11 Scholarship Fund Exhibition at the Radcliffe Institute and co-curator for Image/Text at G.A.S.P., honored with poems about her paintings by Maxine Kumin and Rosanna Warren.

In a statement while spending a summer in Manhattan, Ms. Yalovitz-Blankenship wrote:

As I See It Now

Tough times are putting me back into the ‘expressionist’ mode. The world as I have known it has changed. Change always occurs in our existence but never at so fast a pace … for the natural world, animal kingdom … the ‘human animal’ included.
As I walk down city streets in Manhattan, through masses of humanity, detritus, I see scrawls and scribbles, tearing on planes of buildings, sidewalks. They have color, character, but I look at them differently today. The images are unclear, dissected; the words are illegible. I search to find their meaning.

On our planet the clouds express themselves with scrawled messages, too; the seas do it in their turbulent waves; the wind hurls rain and snow … I am not alone. Lightning strikes, thunder growls, the earth quivers and shakes with anger … I am not alone.
These painting, scraping, tearing and reshaping, graffiti-like messages in my psyche are a response to the current world. The dark side is here but the light is with us in color. Color is the symbol of hope. What visual statements will come from this thinking? I shall have to wait and see. .  

Cy Twombly

Cy Twombly was born 1928 in Lexington, Virginia. He studied art in Boston, New York and at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, where he met other notable artists like John Cage, Robert Motherwell and Robert Rauschenberg
Cy traveled to North Africa and Europe as a young man and arrived back in New York during the 50′s with new paintings whose compositions mixed elements of abstraction, drawing and writing. He was the first American artist to use graffiti-like marks and scribbled lines on his canvases. This type of graffiti was not associated with urban decay, but borrowed from the French New Realists, lead by the artist Jean Dubuffet. His work was also influenced by Paul Klee as well as the automatic writing of the Surrealists.
Twombly eventually settled in Rome, Italy in the late 1950′s where he is still living at the time of this writing. In Italy his paintings became more elaborate and his paint surfaces more thick and textured. His work began to resemble ancient Roman walls incorporated with references to the antique in color and markings that often refer to Homer and the Iliad. Twombly’s work is infused with references to literature and landscape, especially that of the Mediterranean.

Karen Arm

Why modernist painting dissolved figures and objects into uniform fields is a question worth pondering. Karen Arm, a New York painter, doesn't worry about it, though; taking field painting as a given, she produces pictures that are beautiful if not especially thought-provoking.

Working on canvases in two sizes, medium-large and moderately small, she painstakingly builds up layers of translucent glazes and allover networks of fine mark making. She covers a grayed purple field with swirling red, orange and yellow lines, or a blue-green field with squiggly, meandering white and light-blue lines. Some paintings operate in the gap between representation and abstraction. Myriad, pinhead-size dots on near black suggest stars; red drops suggest blood; scalloped horizontal lines on jade green suggest rippling water.
It's the way the delicate mark making activates every square inch of the canvas, the glossy material sensuousness of the surface and the rich yet subtle color that account for the appeal of these works. They are formulaic, however, and one begins to wish Ms. Arm would try something less comfortably predictable.

Geneviève Claisse

 Geneviève Claisse is a grande dame of geometrical abstraction. Right from the very outset of her career she has pursued an autonomous, non-representational form of painting. For this she received important impulses from Auguste Herbin, who she worked for as assistant in the 1950s. From then on a rigorously geometrical vocabulary with clearly delineated colour fields determined her work, which is dominated by triangles, sometimes circles, and later also squares and rectangles created from black linear formations. In her precisely executed paintings the artist, who now resides in Paris, has arrived at harmoniously balanced, dynamically rhythmic compositions with an arresting aesthetic.

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Zeke Berman

Zeke Berman’s background as a sculptor is evident in his painstakingly fabricated arrangements for the camera. Using string, wood, clay, water, paper, and glass, Berman creates complicated still lifes that resist clear-cut visual interpretation. By conflating the difference between what is seen by the eye and what is seen by the camera, Berman incites our imagination and challenges our perception.
Born in New York in 1951, Zeke Berman is a graduate New York’s High School of Music and Art and the Philadelphia College of Art (BFA in sculpture, 1972). Included in many major museum collections, Berman’s photographs have been exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago; Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art; Friends of Photography, San Francisco; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; and Museum of Modern Art, New York. Berman is the recipient of grants and fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the McDowell Colony, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the New York Foundation for the Arts.

Ronald Mallory

In the sixties he was one of the foundational members of the kinetic art movement. In particular, his works involving mercury and acrylic have become icons, and are represented in many collections, including the Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan. Mallory was a student of the late Pol Bury. He works in many mediums, including digital art and oil paintings.

"I believe art must be creation itself. It must design itself. It must break away from tradition. It has been a natural evolution for me to make the transition from painting as I knew it. Working with the newest discoveries in chemistry, computer imagery and materials has become so much a part of our age. My work therefore has become organic in concert with my attempt at "controlling" its innate nature to create a finished work. It is like a seed in the earth; it must evolve, it must change and become a collaboration between nature and man.

Synchronized, harmonious, beautiful." - Ronald Mallory

Patrick Bailly-Maitre-Grand

Born on 1 February 1945 in Paris. Essentially scientific studies (Master of Physics degree). In 1970 devoted himself to painting and participated in many exhibitions over a decade. Vers1979, his research led him gradually to plastic photography. 1980-1981 : Early work on small format black and white, transferred, sometimes illuminated by a graphic pencil. "Blacks" and "CLASSICS" 1982-1983 : Bourse (DRAC Support for Creation). Rediscovers the daguerreotype and spends two years of research. After seven years of work with this technique, it is now considered one of the most important contemporary daguerreotypist. 1984-1985 : Series "STATUE OF LIBERTY," "LEASES OF PROVENCE", "GRAFFITI" and "THE COELACANTH ". 1986 : Is represented by Galerie Michèle Chaumette. Paris. Series "FORMOL'S BAND" and "LIGHT-TRAIN NIGHT TRAIN." 1987/88 "OPTICA NATURALIS" and "Homage to Jean Arp." 1989 Series "BISCH'S BAND". ACMISA scholarship.Realization of "OPTICA NATURALIS IV" for the Museum National d'Art Moderne (Centre Georges Pompidou). Panorama of Paris daguerreotype, the Carnavalet Museum. 1990 : Ensemble "THE DIGIPHALES". Winner of the European Centre for Contemporary Art Actions (ECCAS). 1991 : Studies on rayogramme. Series "FLY" and "SPIDERS". Draft of the series "THE MOON TO DRINK". 1992 : Start of the series "THE VERONA", "OPTICA NATURALIS V" for the Cité des Sciences de la Villette in Paris. 1993 :  Publication of "CELINE" (Editions Marval). Order for the Castle Oiron "CURIOS AND Mirabilia". Retrospective: "e iπ = - 1" Centre Régional de la Photographie d'Ile de France (CPIF). Pontault-combault.Creation of "fireflies". Design of a restaurant in Strasbourg ("At Lecomte"). CNAP scholarship for a study on the Church of Our Lady of Etampes. Series "The Romans" 1994 : Series "CYLINDER'S BAND" and "spraying water." Construction at the Parc de l'Orangerie in Strasbourg, "WELL THIEF" (public procurement CEAAC City of Strasbourg). End of the series "THE MOON TO DRINK" and "THE VERONA". 1995 : Finalization of the Series "A TRIBUTE ARP" and "FLIES millimeter." Optical facilities: "VERANDA LUCIDA", "THE AQUARIUM". Series "Uranists". " 1996 .Rayograms series "The Japanese WATER". Achieving the "cross" for Norwich Cathedral. (GB). Six exhibitions, simultaneous, England and Scotland, with the help of the French Cultural Services (AFAA).
1997 : Series' THE Gemelli "," THE RING OF WATER "and" DREAM BALL ". 1998 : Series' THE ASTEROIDS "," the little vanities "," THE LONG VANITY "," HAND "." HERBS "," MOON CHILD ".  1999 : Series' THE MAXIMILIAN "," THE PHIDIAS "," THE VANITIES "" Taxidermy. "Sequence" MOON AND THE OTHER "." ARTS AND CRAFTS ". 2000 : Is represented by Galerie Baudoin Lebon. Paris. "fly's eye" (Carnavalet Museum), "The eye of the Cyclops" (city Colmar). WATTWILLER Stock Exchange.  2001 Series: "The times", "comas". "CHANCE AND NECESSITY."  2002 : Professor at the Institut National du Patrimoine. Series "THE MORNING OF THE WORLDS", "THE ANT "," PLACE GLASS "," Castor and Pollux "," EX PHOTO ". 2003 : Series' PASTE ALOUETTES "," OUTFIT OF GHOSTS "," Chemin des Dames, "" The Magic Lantern "," THE MORPHEE "(Daguerreotypes)" THE ROCKING CHAIRS "," vacation with my girlfriend ". 2004 : Series' APPLES OF NEWTON "," GARDEN OF THULE, "" Agatha "," AUTOGRAPHS "," TRACKING "," The Cutaway "," ROUND KITCHEN "," HERE and forward. " 2005 : "THAT THERE IS OUR LOVE? "" PLATRES FIREWORKS "," WATER FIREWORKS "," netsuke "," Melancholy "." SIRIUS. " 2006 : "Melancholy" (for Friends of the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Strasbourg). " THE PERIPATETITIEN "," FACE "," DROPS OF NIEPCE. " 2007 : "Auras", "SR", "PROFILE", "THE ANATOMY", "Cain and Abel." 2008 "DUPLEX" " The DNA "," The Eclipse ". 2009 : "The Bauble", "Tests of the glazier," "the jaws broken", "inlays," "seals", "the announcements" 2010 : "The Big Sleep ", "GRAPH SNCF", "HYBERNATUS", "YEAR OF FLIES." 2011: "AFFRICAN BATA", "Trophy-Tattoos," "Apollo 11", "square of Confucius", "The grating"

Fritz Kahn

Dr. Fritz Kahn (1888-1968) was a gynaecologist in Berlin and a world-famous popular science writer who illustrated the form and function of the human body with spectacular, modern man-machine analogies. In the 1920s, his magnum opus, “Das Leben des Menschen” (The Life of Man) – a five-volume series – was renowned as a German accomplishment of global repute. In the 1930s, his books were banned and burned by the Nazis, then edited by Kahn’s publisher and reissued as plagiarisms with a superimposed anti-Semitic chapter.
The Jewish intellectual was expelled from Germany, and settled in Palestine, later in France. He was eventually able to escape his pursuers, with personal help from Albert Einstein, by immigrating to the U.S., where he successfully continued his career as a bestselling author. He spent his final years in Danish exile and died in Ascona, Switzerland in 1968, when he was almost 80, after an extraordinary life and career.
In Germany, Fritz Kahn was silenced. Now some thousand links on the internet demonstrate a newly aroused interest in Kahn, especially among young historians and designers. To this day, creative professionals all over the globe are inspired by the images Kahn’s staff produced for his books almost 100 years ago. Many adapt his inimitable metaphoric approach for their own contemporary interpretations.
The aim of the illustrated monograph “Fritz Kahn – Man Machine” is to popularize his unique works again and to show why and how this valuable part of German cultural history is still alive today.

Bruce Conner

Bruce Conner, played a significant role in the underground art movement that originated in the US towards the end of the 1950s, though he might have been better known and wealthier had he been less suspicious of the "conservative art gallery system", stayed off the booze and drugs, and concentrated his energies.
Although his work ranged from assemblage pieces - collage sculptures made from nylon stockings, parts of furniture, broken dolls, fur, costume jewellery, paint, photographs and candles, reclaiming objects that had been discarded and neglected - to mysterious mandala designs, photograms of his own body, ink-blot, Rorschach-like drawings and avant-garde films, all had a blend of humour, iconoclasm and intransigence.
Always afraid of selling out, Conner, as a committed oppositional artist, gradually withdrew from the art world in the late 1970s after he became part of the San Francisco punk scene, working as a staff photographer for the "punkzine" Search and Destroy. During that time, he spent most of his nights at a club called the Mabuhay. "I lost a lot of brain cells at the Mabuhay," he explained. "What are you gonna do listening to hours of incomprehensible rock'n'roll but drink? I became an alcoholic, and it took me a few years to deal with that." Yet, despite the woozy atmosphere, he delivered sharp and characterful photos.
Influenced by dada and surrealism and the found objects of Marcel Duchamp, Conner first gained attention with his assemblage art, exhibiting at the Alan gallery in New York. His movie-making dated back to when he ran a film society at the University of Colorado. He invited Stan Brakhage to show his experimental films there, and Brakhage advised Conner to make films. The consequence was Movie (1958), a 12-minute collage of stock or found footage which moves from the comic (crazy races, a chase scene involving cars and cowboys) to the disturbing (shivering refugees, an execution, air crashes), questioning the way we view a film.
In 1967, he had his first experience of commercial film-making when he shot a 14-minute film on location during the making of Cool Hand Luke, starring Paul Newman, in which his friend Dennis Hopper had a small role. It was released unedited (Hopper claimed that "much of the editing of Easy Rider came directly from watching Bruce's films").
Conner continued to make his own short films including Crossroads (1976) in which the 1952 atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll becomes a thing of terrible beauty when shown in extreme slow motion from 27 different angles. As countercultural as ever, one of his last films was America Is Waiting (1981), which lampoons US military might to a song by Brian Eno and David Byrne.

Dr. Ikkaku Ochi

A doctor and photography enthusiast, Ikkaku Ochi practiced his profession in Okayama, a prefecture of Shikoku, one of Japan’s southern islands. He had his patients photographed during the last decade of the 19th century, producing images that are strikingly distinct from contemporary medical photographs, which serve as mere educational material and rarely as sensitive portraits of the diseased. Ochi’s patients were recorded with dignity and respect, though the exposed, diseased parts of their bodies are explicitly documented and not for the squeamish.
Individual photographs reveal the physical manifestations of syphilis in its final stages, elephantiasis of the testes or breasts, and other medical conditions – conditions that today are almost completely suppressed by medication or vaccination. Cruel and melancholic, these photographs seen today possess an undeniable elegance and uncomfortable beauty, qualities that Akimitsu Naruyama recognized immediately when he opened that forgotten wooden box.

Anìbal Angulo

Head teacher has been recorded in the National School of Plastic Arts of the UNAM, as photographer traveled to five continents doing work for major publishers in Mexico. He was a member of the Advisory Board of Modern Art Museale Mexico and Director of the Institute of Culture Sudcalifornia 

Edward Curtis

Edward S. Curtis and THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN(1868 – 1952)

Morgan Edward Sheriff Curtis not only attempted, but actually achieved the impossible. With The North American Indian he created an irreplaceable photographic and ethnographic record of more than eighty of North America's native nations - a record first published between 1907 and 1930, which, after decades of obscurity in rare book rooms and private collections, is now experiencing its renaissance. Comprising twenty volumes, twenty portfolios, thousands of pages of text, and more than twenty two hundred photogravures, The North American Indian remains not only an unparalleled artistic and historic achievement but a watershed in publishing history.

Anne Brigman

Anne Wardrope (Nott) Brigman (1869–1950) was an American photographer and one of the original members of the Photo-Secession movement in America. Her most famous images were taken between 1900 and 1920, and depict nude women in primordial, naturalistic contexts.
She was close friends with the writer Jack London and the poet and naturalist Charles Keeler. Perhaps seeking her own artistic outlet, she began photographing in 1901. Soon she was exhibiting in local photographic salons, and within two years she had developed a reputation as a master of pictorial photography. In late 1902 she came across a copy of Camera Work and was captivated by the images and the writings of Alfred Stieglitz. She wrote Stieglitz praising him for the journal, and Stieglitz in turn soon became captivated with Brigman’s photography. In 1902 he listed her as an official member of the Photo-Secession, which, because of Stieglitz’s notoriously high standards and because of her distance from the other members in New York, is a significant indicator of her artistic status. IN 1906 she was listed as a Fellow of the Photo-Secession, the only photographer west of the Mississippi to be so honored.

From 1903 to 1908 Stieglitz exhibited Brigman’s photos many times, and her photos were printed in three issues of Stieglitz’s journal Camera Work. During this same period he often exhibited and corresponded under the name “Annie Brigman”, but in 1911 she dropped the “i” and was known from then on as “Anne”. Although she was well known for her artistic work, she did not do any commercial or portrait work like some of her comptemporaries.
In California, she became revered by West Coast photographers and her photography influenced many of her contemporaries. Here, she was also known as an actress in local plays, and as a poet performing both her own work and more popular pieces such as Enoch Arden . An admirer of the work of George Wharton James, she photographed him on at least one occasion .
She continued photography through the 1940s, and her work evolved from a pure pictorial style to more of a straight photography approach, although she never really abandoned her original vision. Her later close-up photos of sandy beaches and vegetation are fascinating abstractions in black-and-white. In the mid-1930s she also began taking creative writing classes, and soon she was writing poetry. Encouraged by her writing instructor, she put together a book of her poems and photographs call Songs of a Pagan. She found a publisher for the book in 1941, but because of World War II the book was not printed until 1949, one year before she died. Brigman died on 8 February 1950 at her sister’s home in El Monte, California.
Brigman’s photographs frequently focused on the female nude, dramatically situated in natural landscapes or trees. Many of her photos were taken in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in carefully selected locations and featuring elaborately staged poses. Brigman often featured herself as the subject of her images. After shooting the photographs, she would extensively touch up the negatives with paints, pencil, or superimposition.
Brigman’s deliberately counter-cultural images suggested bohemianism and female liberation. Her work challenged the establishment’s cultural norms and defied convention, instead embracing pagan antiquity. The raw emotional intensity and barbaric strength of her photos contrasted with the carefully calculated and composed images of Stieglitz and other modern photographers.

Frances Benjamin Johnston

Frances "Fannie" Benjamin Johnston (15 January 1864 – 16 May 1952) was one of the earliest American female photographers and photojournalists.

She took portraits of friends, family and local figures before working as a freelance photographer and touring Europe in the 1890s, using her connection to Smillie to visit prominent photographers and gather items for the museum's collections. She gained further practical experience in her craft by working for the newly formed Eastman Kodak company in Washington D.C. forwarding film for development and advising customers when cameras needed repairs. She opened her own photographic studio in Washington D.C. in 1895, taking portraits of many famous contemporaries including Susan B. Anthony, Mark Twain and Booker T. Washington. She photographed Admiral Dewey on the deck of the USS Olympia, the Roosevelt children playing with their pet pony at the White House and the gardens of Edith Wharton's famous villa near Paris.
Johnston also photographed the famous American heiress and literary salon socialite Natalie Barney in Paris but perhaps her most famous work, shown opposite, is her self portrait of the liberated 'New Woman', petticoats showing and beer stein in hand. Johnston was a constant advocate for the role of women in the burgeoning art of photography. She traveled widely in her thirties, taking a wide range of documentary and artistic photographs of coal miners, iron workers, women in New England's mills and sailors being tattooed on board ship as well as her society commissions.
She photographed events such as world's fairs and peace-treaty signings and took the last portrait of President William McKinley, at the Pan American Exposition of 1901 just before his assassination. 
 In the 1920s she became increasingly interested in photographing architecture, motivated by a desire to document buildings and gardens which were falling into disrepair or about to be redeveloped and lost. Her photographs remain an important resource for modern architects, historians and conservationists. She exhibited a series of 247 photographs ofFredericksburg, Virginia, from the decaying mansions of the rich to the shacks of the poor, in 1928. The exhibit was titled "Pictorial Survey--Old Fredericksburg, Virginia--Old Falmouth and Nearby Places" and described as "A Series of Photographic Studies of the Architecture of the Region Dating by Tradition from Colonial Times to Circa 1830" as "An Historical Record and to Preserve Something of the Atmosphere of An Old Virginia Town."

Oscar Rejlander

Oscar Gustave Rejlander (Sweden 1813 – London 1875) was a pioneering Victorian art photographer.
His exact date of birth is uncertain, but is probably 1813.
 He abandoned his original profession as a painter and portrait minaturist, apparently after seeing how well a photograph captured the fold of a sleeve. Other accounts say he was inspired by one of Fox Talbot's assistants.
He set up as a portraitist in the industrial Midlands town of Wolverhampton, probably around 1846. Around 1850 he learned the wet-collodion process at great speed, and then changed his business to that of a photography studio. He undertook genre work and portraiture. He also created erotic work, using as models the circus girls of Mme Wharton, street children and child prostitutes - his Charlotte Baker series remains notorious.

Rejlander undertook many experiments to perfect his photography, including combination printing, which it is possible he may have invented. He was a friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, who collected Rejlander's early child work and corresponded with him on technical matters. Rejlander later created one of the best known & most revealing portraits of Dodgson.

His early work only slightly sullied his later reputation, and he participated in the Paris Exhibition of 1855. In 1857 he made his best-known allegorical work, The Two Ways of Life. This was a seamlessly montaged combination print made of thirty-two images (akin to the use of Photoshop today, but then far more difficult to achieve). First exhibited at Manchester, the work shows two youths being offered guidance by a patriarch. Each youth looks toward a section of a stage-like tableaux vivant - one youth is shown the virtuous pleasures and the other the sinful pleasures. The image's partial nudity was deemed 'indecent' by some - and those familiar with Rejlander's more commercial work might also suspect that prostitutes had been used as cheap models. But the 'indecency' faded when Queen Victoriaordered a copy to give to Prince Albert.
This success, and membership of the Royal Photographic Society of London, gave him an entree into London respectability.

 He moved his studio to London around 1862 and further experimented with double exposure, photomontage, photographic manipulation and retouching. He became a leading expert in photographic techniques, lecturing and publishing widely.
He married Mary Bull in 1862, who was twenty-four years his junior. Mary had been his photographic model in Wolverhampton since she was aged 14.
Some of his images were purchased as drawing-aids to Victorian painters of repute, such as Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema. In 1872 his photography illustrated Darwin's classic treatise on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Rejlander's ideas and techniques were taken up by other photographers and this, to some extent, justifies labelling him as the father of art photography.

Lewis Carroll

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (better known by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll) was an English author, mathematician and photographer, who authored the famous novel Alice?s Adventures In Wonderland and its sequel Through The Looking-Glass. His writing has enchanted readers of every age and class; and his word play, logic and fantasy have overjoyed people ranging from children to the cream of the crop of the literary world. The great artist has influenced many others with his exemplary work in the modern art and culture.
Lewis as an Author:
Lewis, as a child, wrote many short stories and poems that often were humorous and mocking in nature. Initially he wrote them out of passion and as a contribution to his family magazine Mischmasch, but later he began sending them for publications in various magazines. After initial moderate success, his work began to mark their place in the national publications such as The Comic Times and The Train. In 1856, his first work, a romantic poem- Solitude was published under his name which became his first landmark success.


While at Oxford, Lewis became acquaintance with the new dean Henry Liddell’s wife Lorina and their familywho came at Christ Church in the year 1856. The couple became great friends with Lewis, who had grown attached to their children Harry, Lorina, Edith and Alice and often entertained them with his jokes and stories. Dodgson, who clearly had affection for small children, took them on expeditions very often, and pictured them in his painting and photographs.
The couple’s daughter Alice grew closer to him in particular; to whom he had first cited the story of what later became a famous book Alice’s adventures in Wonderland. Alice Liddell urged him to pen down the story and he eventually presented her with a handwritten manuscript of the book in 1864. The book was finally published under his authorship in 1865 and became the milestone success in his writing career.The awe-inspiring success of the book made him a much sought after author around the world with a large number of fans. There are many who believe that Alice of his real life appears as the main character of the book, however, Lewis never encouraged this conjecture. In 1872, a sequel of the book was published as Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There. His father’s death in 1868 left him depressed in the depth of despair.
As Photographer:
Photography was one of his great interests which he first took up in 1856 under the influence of his uncle and later a friend Reginald Southey became his mentor. His work mainly consist nude photographs of small children, most of them illustrating young girls. His studies of nude children have inflamed countless rumors and controversies that keep surfacing till this day. Dodgson also studied other such subjects as men, dolls, dogs, statues, paintings, trees and old men and made portraits of eminent persons such as Julia Margret Cameron, Michael Faraday Millais and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He was considered one of the best photographers in his times that influenced and set exemplary for the modern art photographers. Dodgson abandoned photography in 1880 for unknown reasons.

Lady Clementina Hawarden

Clementina, Lady Hawarden, is a poetic, if elusive, presence among nineteenth-century photographers. As a devoted mother, her life revolved around her eight children. She took up photography in 1857; using her daughters as models, she created a body of work remarkable for its technical brilliance and its original depiction of nascent womanhood.

Lady Hawarden showed her work in the 1863 and 1864 exhibitions of the Photographic Society. With the exception of a few rare examples, her photographs remained in the possession of her family until 1939, when the more than eight hundred images were donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum. Only recently have they been the objects of research, publication, and exhibition.

Clementina Maude, her mother's preferred model, is seen here in a reflective pose against a star-studded wall. The casual placement of the shawl on the table and the girl's loose hair contribute to the feeling of intimacy. In the airy room time seems to be suspended. The sensuous curves of the table legs, the soft weight of the crushed velvet, and the crispness of the starry wallpaper are enhanced by the skillful handling of the collodion technique. The composition, devoid of Victorian clutter, brings together light, shadow, and compositional elements in a spare and appealing interplay. In contrast to the prevailing fashion of giving literary or sentimental titles to portraits of young women, Lady Hawarden titled her works simply "Photographic Study."